This guide shows how to set up your SDK environment to deploy Cordova apps for Android devices, and how to optionally use Android-centered command-line tools in your development workflow. AVD Manager has a nice interface when started from Android Studio. Eclipse Packages Mac OS X (Cocoa) 64-bit Linux 32-bit Linux 64-bit. how to Expressvpn Command. (Note sure even if IDEA is using that though. dmg This creates a. com offers free software downloads for Windows, Mac, iOS and Android computers and mobile devices. 0 This site uses cookies for analytics, personalized content and ads. alias avd='cd /path-to-sdk/tools;. create and edit all BCD options and settings. /gradlew assembleDebug. The SDK Tools primarily includes the stock Android emulator, hierarchy viewer, SDK manager, and ProGuard. Substitute according to your requirements. Capture2Text doesn't have an installer either. Open the Windows Command Prompt. If you're using Android Studio,. Format a USB Drive. Launch Android Studio>Tools>Android>AVD Manager and select Create Virtual Device. The Amplify Framework provides a set of libraries, UI components, and a command line interface to build a mobile backend and integrate with your iOS, Android, Web, and React Native apps. EXE from MS-DOS 6. I remember it was possible for earlier version of Android Studio. Although setting up the Android emulator involves a bit of work, subsequent uses should be relatively simple. saurel 18 April 2016 Install Samsung Galaxy S7 and S7 Edge skins in your Android Emulator 2016-04-13T17:00:31+01:00 Android, Tutorials No Comment When you develop Android applications, using the Android Emulator to check the behaviour of your application on different kind of devices and configurations is an essential thing. The Android tooling generates automatically a valid Gradle build file, which can be used in Jenkins. Run the following command. (Replace E with the drive letter of the device where you lost files or data. cer -inform DER -out developer_identity. Same great program, just with a new name. Fast Servers in 94 Countries. ObjConverter – converts 3DS and DXF files to X-Plane 8 OBJ format. You can even create a batch file or a shortcut to make it easier to launch the emulator in the future. 2 debugger Santosh Kumar Yadav reported Jul 30, 2017 at 08:11 PM. Below is the following command: android create avd -n -t --skin WVGA800. In Windows 10, you can use the search box inside the Start menu. Once you get the hang of these commands, you can do most of your work more. Create Team projects so multiple users can make diagrams, build prototypes, and explore designs in a single Axure RP file at the same time. The procedure is as follows:. It’s a program that takes in commands, which it passes on to the computer’s operating system to run. On Windows, there is a special command-line option which will attach a console to the window, allowing you to see the result of print calls (equivalent. We are humbled to hear from many of you that the Android Emulator has come a long way, but we are not done yet. This tutorial shows how to accelerate the Android App development using virtual devices by replacing the slow Android emulator with faster VMWare. Click AVD Manager in the toolbar. Tar lets you create archives, and extract them without needing additional tools. Create an Android-restricted API key for your project. APPIUM is a freely distributed open source mobile application UI Testing framework. Don’t rely on the specific Chrome version number (for example, 30. How to sending a text message from the command prompt in Windows 7? most everything I did was at the dos prompt. However, the real breakthrough came when Prof. Steps to install or uninstall application from android emulator using command prompt. While my last blog post on building Android apps from the command line was a great start, I felt like it was time to tackle some more advanced issues. Linux Mint is free of charge (thanks to your donations and adverts on the website) and we hope you'll enjoy it. Open the Windows Command Prompt. Android builds are only supported on our Trusty image at this time hence you'll need to explicitly specify dist: trusty in your. vcf files are copied to a single folder. On Mac, just open Terminal from Launchpad (usually found in the Other folder). android is an important development tool that lets you: Create, delete, and view Android Virtual Devices (AVDs). Access your Android's built-in Linux command line shell. This document is a reference to the available command line options and the keyboard mapping to device keys. dat email attachments sent by Microsoft Outlook and Exchange. For more details, refer to the Android Studio documentation. Why is Command mode Important Importance of command line execution: Integration with other systems Faster runs No dependency on UI Important for implementing How to run from Command Line | Katalon Docs. Download System Images and create Android emulator. Getting Started Android SDK. Today, the Android Emulator is the top device deployed to from Android Studio — more than 2x over physical Android devices. In the Create Launcher Script dialog, provide the name and the path of the launcher, or accept the suggested values. MuPDF is a lightweight PDF, XPS, and E-book viewer. These Android command-line tools or command line arguments, whether run from a command-line interface or from a Graphical User Interface. Code Solution of Computer Languages and Technology Kundan http://www. The main problem is that because it has been stripped down, the ifconfig command has been taken out, and I only can use the ip busybox command. Format USB Drive on Windows 10 using Command prompt. Download and install Android. Last month i have earned $19539 by doing very simple and easy online job from home. txt” (without quotes) to list the files and folders contained in the folder. Next you need to change the working directory to the folder which contains the fastboot software. Create an Android Virtual Device from the command line. The Android SDK allows mobile software developers the opportunity to tinker with the platform and create new and interesting work. Android Tips said Just now installed and using it. Oxygene for Java ships with templates for creating Android projects, and produces both native Java JAR files and the Android APK file necessary for deployment to an Android device. The platform guide above has more information. While the Android emulator and Android Virtual Device configurations (AVDs) go a long way towards testing a variety of aspects of app device compatibility issues, users run apps on real devices and with real mobile networks. The new Android SDK deprecates the 'android' command and the SDK manager, moving everything to Android Studio. Facebook Login - Authenticate people with their Facebook credentials. mhow to create vpn connection from command line for Select Destination CREATE VPN CONNECTION FROM COMMAND LINE ★ Most Reliable VPN. How are you? First of all, thanks a lot for coming on this blog. Find step by step guide to downloading PuTTYgen, a key generator for free. keystore -alias alias_name -keyalg RSA -keysize 2048 -validity 10000 A debug keystore which is used to sign an Android app during development needs a specific alias and password combination as dictated by Google. Create a Shortcut For Your Android. For more information, see Managing Virtual Devices from the Command Line. 4 Connecting to the MySQL Server Using Command Options This section describes use of command-line options to specify how to establish connections to the MySQL server, for clients such as mysql or mysqldump. If you want to run the tutorial in an Android Virtual Device (AVD), make sure to create the device with support for audio playback and GPU Emulation (to enable OpenGL ES). , a subsequent change in one will not affect the other). Ensure that the created launcher script is within the search path of your shell so that it can be invoked system-wide. (Replace E with the drive letter of the device where you lost files or data. android create avd -n -t -c [K|M] The -c option can also be used to to specify a path to an SD card image for the new AVD. If you can use GUI, just type in android avd and it will launch the manager, where. Step 1: Remove All Account (add it back after setup) After installed Package Disabler app successful, Go [Settings] -> [Accounts] to temporarily Remove All Accounts (a few devices also need remove your SIM card) including your Google accounts (add it back after setup completed) Step 2: Install ADB Tool on Your Computer ADB - Android Debug Bridge, is a command-line utility included…. If you use gradle (or Android Studio), you can build your app from the command-line using. It is very useful tool for every system administrator to monitor network performance and troubleshoot network related problems. For manual SDK, AVD, and project management, please use Android Studio. Keyboard Commands. Open the Windows Command Prompt. Type: Y and hit Enter to continue. Below are a number of reasons to delete files Using Command Prompt and Command Line: By making use of wildcards, you are able to erase multiple files fast and effectively. Create Android Emulator using Command line This video tutorial content following: How to make Android emulator for test your Android apps;. - (Android-only) reboot emulator after each session and kill it at the end--command-timeout: 60 [DEPRECATED] No effect. EXE from MS-DOS 6. He is a runner, avid world traveler and a licensed helicopter pilot. Open, convert and save the files on winmail. Do you wish to create a custom hardware profile [no] Use the create avd command to create a new AVD, specifying the --skin option with a value that references either a default skin name (such as "WVGA800") or a custom skin resolution (such as 240x432). While this provides some functionality similar to such tools as apt-get or yum it is not as full-featured as those package managers. May 12, 2017 January 12, 2019 9 Comments on Launching the Android Emulator from the Command Line I’m not sure which update exactly broke it, but recently I got this when trying to launch the Android Emulator from the CLI:. Everyone knows how to kill a program using Task Manager in Windows or Force Quit in OS X, but sometimes it's useful to kill a program using the command line. The kit contains everything you need to start building apps. The Facebook SDK for Android is the easiest way to integrate your Android app with Facebook. For all of you, I’m again here with another stunning CMD tricks and hacks article. Other names for the command line are: cmd, CLI, prompt, console or terminal. This tutorial will walk you through how to successfully create a new game project using Cocos 2d-x. To run Android apps you need either a physical Android-based device (e. Top Features + Full Linux terminal emulation. Start Android Studio app, then create a blank project. How to write a USB stick with macOS. Select the newly created device definition and click on the "Create AVD" button, as shown in figure 4 below. - download the free Swiss File Knife Base from Sourceforge. and a lot of folks use one or both on their Linux or Mac computers even if they. The purpose of this section is to guide you to create in your development environment an Android emulator. Here's a primer on how it works, and how you can do almost anything with it. Most of the techniques described here will also work with other virtualization software like VirtualBox. It can run as an integrated tool from the Android Studio menu and independently from the command line. In case the adb program gives an error, verify that Android device has the debugging preferences enabled. 0 or later, you can right-click (or press CTRL and click) your saved RAR files and use the Context Menu to unzip them. If the tar file is compressed, type 7z x filename. Setup Android Emulators. This allows us to execute SQL scripts without touching SQL Server Management Studio (SSMS) GUI. In the command line you just enter the following commands: $ cd /Developer/android-sdk-mac_x86-1. Have a device running Android 4. The simplest is to use your Mac. Read more to find out download links for Android SDK tools / Command line tools. From the top of the program window, select [Window]=>[Android Virtual Device Manager] If you see AVD displayed in the window that opens as below, then you’re all set. You can create an Android emulator in the command window by entering a command such as this: echo no | android -s create avd -n my_android -t 1 For the skin, you might want to add this option: --skin WXGA800-7in For more information, see the Android documentation. On Windows, hold shift and right click anywhere in the folder to open a command line. developerWorks blogs allow community members to share thoughts and expertise on topics that matter to them, and engage in conversations with each other. Alternately, you may go back to the Android Virtual Device tab and click the create button, as shown in figure 5. Hide Your IP Address. Here's a primer on how it works, and how you can do almost anything with it. I'm new to this Windows 7 and it's been a while. This combination makes sure that the installation isn't associated with your Apple ID, which is important if you're selling or giving away your Mac. A Version 1 UUID is a universally unique identifier that is generated using a timestamp and the MAC address of the computer on which it was generated. Nox is an excellent Android emulator with full Android features. Once you have Intel® HAXM for Android emulator installed on your system, the next step is to create an appropriate Android* Virtual Device (AVD) configuration using the x86 Android* images for the target API level. AVDs are basically device emulators. If you don’t see this displayed, click the Create button and add an Android device. With Android out of the way, let’s move on to take a look at how iOS simulators work. If you are running Linux or Windows you might need to adjust the paths but it should be fairly easy. You might have to reduce the amount of memory the AVD is using if you don't see the emulator boot up in a minute. Following these intructions, you can install Android Market. Manual Install. Here's an example: android create avd -n -t --skin. Since 1997, we have been developing, supporting, deploying and advocating the use of the World's Most Advanced Open Source Database. Use a VPN to protect your privacy and enjoy safe and anonymous web browsing worldwide. Unleash your inner geek! This is a new version of the popular "Android Terminal Emulator" application. To do this, browse to your Android SDK folder and open the Tools folder. In Windows, you can do plenty of things using command line. 0), the Android Emulator has been released separately from the rest of the Android SDK tools. Then, create a sample project in Android Studio and then click the link as shown below to install missing libraries. In this article, we will see how to install Android SDK manager on ubuntu 16. The 'Android' menu is also missing from Tools. It will cover desired capabilities and APPIUM with Maven uses. It's important to notice that this app doesn't emulate video games. But for those who do not have an Android Studio or for those who do not like to open Android Studio just to perform SDK management, you can still manage the SDK using the command line tools, "tools/bin/sdkmanager. (The Androidsubmenu is only present when inside an Android project. And with that, you can now type android-avd in your terminal to open an Android AVD. Assuming you have the Android SDK installed properly on your computer, the command to create a new AVD from the command line looks like this: android create avd -n 64MiB-HGVA-AVD -t 4 -c 64M. To create each AVD, you issue the command android create avd, with options that specify a name for the new AVD and the system image you want to run on the emulator when the AVD is invoked. Select one or more system images for the Android versions you want to emulate, and select Next. The renderer in MuPDF is tailored for high quality anti-aliased graphics. To create an image of an SD card we use the command mksdcard -l [K­|M]. Click on Services at the bottom of the Context menu, then choose Unzip. So start by creating a directory on your local system and call it repos. You can access your Android device via the adb command on the command line. Android emulators are managed through a UI called AVD Manager. Create an Android Virtual Device from the command line. Mac OS X 10. java files to. android" Supported commands are: android list target android list avd android list device android create avd android move avd android delete avd android list sdk android update sdk 执行命令出错,返回值:1。 Traceback (most recent call last): File "build_native. 71 for Mac OS WinRAR is a powerful archive manager. Here is an A to Z list of Windows CMD commands which will be beneficial to you. Fastboot is not an application that runs within your OS, it requires the terminal or command line. Android stop or start adb from command line By Ravi Tamada October 27, 2013 0 Comments Sometimes your android emulator might fails to connect eclipse DDMS tool and ask for adb to start manually. If you don't have an Android device available to test with, we recommend using the default emulator that comes with Android Studio. So I can use ssh -Y to log into the machine while forwarding x connections and then run some-command; xmessage "some-command is done" to pop up a notification on my desktop when the long running command is finished. On Mac or Linux, open a terminal and navigate to the tools/ directory in the Android SDK, then execute android sdk. The command line tools provided by the Android SDK Tools package also enables updating the SDK, but without a GUI. Start typing. The only that displays the original message subject and body. You can open the Command Line Interface by pressing Shift + F2. Enable a command-line launcher on Linux and macOS. On macOS, update to Visual Studio 2017 for Mac 7. Things were not always like this; but with the advent of GUI based operating systems, people started feeling that computing through command based tools was boring. Compile and sign your Android app by command line; Connectivity Support property; Creating an Android Virtual Device; Creating an Android Virtual Device (X Evolution 2 and 3) Creating an Extension Library for Android; Emulation for Android; Emulation for Android (X Evolution 2 and 3) Execution for Android Using the Device. Decided to get back to android development learning. Solve everything seamlessly and securely with the Rescue remote support software. Make sure your Android device is enabled with USB debugging , then click the debug button to deploy your app. Due to higher application compatibility and stability than its counterparts, this emulator is the first choice of millions of users. Click Create Virtual Device Select a hardware profile, and then click Next. Setup Android Emulator on Mac OS X. AirDroid on the web is still as awesome as it always was, but the new desktop clients - available for both Windows and Mac - is pretty snazzy. Visit for free, full and secured software’s. You can use the features of the build system to:. gonball_WorkSpace\trunk_en_wangyida\proj. MuPDF consists of a software library, command line tools, and viewers for various platforms. However, this is just one way for us to communicate with computers. Download Visual Studio Code for macOS. how to Expressvpn Command. apk File From the Command Line If you don't want to install a number of programs for building your Android project, this article is for you. bat (or the android command on Mac & Linux) command–line tool provided in the /tools directory of the Android SDK installation. All commands can be commented on, discussed and voted up or. Starting an Android Emulator. Read the macOS setup guide for help. The platform guide above has more information. It saved me when I was in trouble, hopefully you will find it useful as well. If you create Android Virtual Devices (AVDs) directly through the command line you should. Select a system image, such as Marshmallow - API 23 - x86. The AVD Manager provides a graphical user interface in which you can create and manage Android Virtual Devices (AVDs), which are required by the Android Emulator. one or more required input filenames. In order to create an AVD (Android Virtual Device) you must provide a name for the AVD and specify the ID of the SDK package to use for the AVD using wrapped in quotes. Complete the following steps to setup NativeScript on your macOS development machine: Install Homebrew to simplify the installation process. Ranked mac RM to MP3 converter app to Converting RM files in MP3 audio format for Sierra, YosemiteMoutain Lion, Lion, snow leopard, mac os x. To do this, run the following command-line statement from the OpenSSL bin directory: openssl x509 -in developer_identity. However, this is just one way for us to communicate with computers. For all of you, I’m again here with another stunning CMD tricks and hacks article. Earlier we have seen how to Install Android SDK Manager on Ubuntu 16. so) There are several ways to make it possible for the Java runtime to find and load a native shared library (. Starting an Android Emulator. Android development is commonly done using Android Studio or some other IDE environment. After downloading, the installer should launch automatically and create an icon on the desktop. mhow to create vpn connection windows 7 command line for Shopping Tips Kentucky Fried Chicken, or just KFC , is one of the 1 last update 2019/10/13 most popular fast food restaurants in the 1 last update 2019/10/13 world. bash_profile. While the Android emulator and Android Virtual Device configurations (AVDs) go a long way towards testing a variety of aspects of app device compatibility issues, users run apps on real devices and with real mobile networks. I've run into several situations where the program refused to end via Task Manager, even when I tried to kill the underlying process. Making the Android Emulator faster is one of the top priorities for the Android Studio team. If you’re a student in one of our workshops or just getting started with React Native on your own, this step-by-step guide will help you painlessly. To begin, we need to. Below are a number of reasons to delete files Using Command Prompt and Command Line: By making use of wildcards, you are able to erase multiple files fast and effectively. Be sure to peruse Anthony Thyssen's tutorial on how to use ImageMagick utilities to create, edit, compose, or convert images from the command-line. The MD5 sum is a kind of digital signature for files and zip packages to check the intactness of files. developerWorks blogs allow community members to share thoughts and expertise on topics that matter to them, and engage in conversations with each other. apk file in Android Emulator using command prompt (cmd) without Eclipse. You can access your Android device via the adb command on the command line. The command line is a quick, powerful, text-based interface developers use to more effectively. We are humbled to hear from many of you that the Android Emulator has come a long way, but we are not done yet. We can use it to create Lambda functions, which scale automatically as our userbase grows. Also am I obliged to use command line. Download FREE Avast Secureline VPN for Windows, Mac & Android. To restrict substitude commands to a column, one can select it and switch to the command-line by typing ':'. With your Google Assistant on Android Auto, you can keep your focus on the road while using your voice to help you with your day. The Android SDK includes a virtual mobile device emulator that runs on your computer. You can use the features of the build system to:. Do you wish to create a custom hardware profile [no] Use the create avd command to create a new AVD, specifying the --skin option with a value that references either a default skin name (such as "WVGA800") or a custom skin resolution (such as 240x432). Run adb install command as below to push android app into emulator /data/app directory. For more information, see Managing Virtual Devices from the Command Line. apk file in Android Emulator using command prompt (cmd) without Eclipse. so) at runtime. I don't have Android Studio installed on the machine — kind of redundancy when I won't. Before we can do this we need to know the IP address the VM has started with. Once you have Intel® HAXM for Android emulator installed on your system, the next step is to create an appropriate Android* Virtual Device (AVD) configuration using the x86 Android* images for the target API level. 2 onwards your will first see the RSA fingerprint prompt (this is the Android system feature), accept it. The command line tools provided by the Android SDK Tools package also enables updating the SDK, but without a GUI. The previous command line parameters for emulator and "android avd" will work with the updated tools. Download Android SDK Tools / Command Line Tools As the Android SDK is present on all major Desktop Operating Systems (Windows, Mac and Linux), we have provided links for downloading Android SDK Tools / Command Line tools on all of these. + Multiple windows. This tutorial shows how to accelerate the Android App development using virtual devices by replacing the slow Android emulator with faster VMWare. Much like Android, there are a lot of different ways you might want to launch iOS simulators from the command line. The platform guide above has more information. We will build an application step-by-step. On macOS, update to Visual Studio 2017 for Mac 7. This problem occurs VisualGDB cannot find any device capable of running your App. Installing Android onto a Hyper-V Virtual Machine. Genymotion Cloud SaaS Cloud-based Android virtual devices to boost your test automation or run your app in your website. I'll show you how to create a simple Java program that sends a Wake-on-LAN packet to wake up a specified machine. 2 Setting Up the Development Environment. We should use the IP address of our virtual machine that may be different. Thus, I can't run an app on an emulator. X_ string in the WebView user-agent string. In this article, I describe how to create AVD, with SD Card, in command line (Terminal of Ubuntu Linux). Bluestacks and youWave were the only options to run Android apps on PC, but in this modern era, Technology is continuously evolving, now you have many free and Best Android Emulator for PC. It's a selection of files bundled together that you will need to begin. The current set includes: DSFTool – converts DSF files to text format and back. For a complete guide to using the Android Emulator, see Using the Android Emulator. To run Android apps you need either a physical Android-based device (e. We'll do a minimal installation with android sdk, required tools and ofcourse - the emulator!. Run the following command. is the oldest and largest dedicated PostgreSQL support provider in North America. This project structure is used only for testing. The choice of tools to be used in the software development process can literally make or break a project, so it’s vitally important to be aware of the options and choose the one that suits you most. Create an emulator in Android Studio, then get its name by running. What this means for you is that you only pay for the compute time you actually use, so you don’t need to think about server usage beforehand. Alternately. command: and shift: and press $ 4 = Use your mouse to draw a rectangle in order to specify what to capture – or press the spacebar and then click on something (e. Now you can access the tools you need to make great things happen. Launching iOS Simulators. I tried to fix this by adding the path manually, but my computer doesn't have a folder called android-sdks or android-sdk or sdk. Press Win + R keys and type: cmd, hit Enter to open Command Prompt window. To help you settle with it, I have listed essential Android Studio shortcuts in an earlier tutorial. 4 on a USB stick The Android-x86 project provides ISO installation images of Android that can be installed on personal computers, which is cool, because that makes it possible to use the most popular operating system on the planet without buying an Android tablet. Appium allows native, hybrid and web application testing and supports automation test on physical devices as well as an emulator or simulator both. Running the Android emulator from the command line To enable running the Android emulator from the command line, you can use the "emulator" tool provided by the Android SDK. Unleash your inner geek! This is a new version of the popular "Android Terminal Emulator" application. A personal access token is required to authenticate to GitHub in the following situations: When you're using two-factor authentication; To access protected content in an organization that uses SAML single sign-on (SSO). The Android SDK includes an Android device emulator — a virtual device that runs on your computer. To create each AVD, you issue the command android create avd, with options that specify a name for the new AVD and the system image you want to run on the emulator when the AVD is invoked. With Android out of the way, let’s move on to take a look at how iOS simulators work. Step 2 - The next step is creating a new Virtual Device for Android 8. Substitute according to your requirements. bat file in Android\Sdk\tools\bin but running it won't launch the avdmanger UI that we get from the Android Studio. Before We Start Did you know that we have some useful Mac apps available on Envato Market? For example, Awesome Live Chat Desk OS X lets you provide your customers with live chat support via simple Mac notifications. How to install the Android SDK on Windows, Mac and Linux | Android. Steps to install or uninstall application from android emulator using command prompt. zip on your Windows, Mac, or Linux computer. Installing Ionic. one or more required input filenames. Create an AVD. Create an emulator in Android Studio, then get its name by running. An Android Virtual Device (AVD) is an emulator configuration that lets you model an actual device by defining hardware and software options to be emulated by the Android Emulator. From the team behind Apache Cordova, the Adobe PhoneGap framework is an open source distribution of Cordova — providing the advantage of technology created by a diverse team of pros along with a robust developer community — plus access to the PhoneGap toolset, so you can get to mobile faster. Some people are surprised how difficult it is to find out how to create a Wake-on-LAN packet. You can also create the file system from a shell with the following command: hdiutil create -type SPARSE -fs 'Case-sensitive Journaled HFS+' -size 40g ~/android. avdmanager -h. Nox is an excellent Android emulator with full Android features. Enable VM acceleration on your machine. On macOS and Linux, create the command-line launcher to integrate IntelliJ IDEA with your shell. Create an SD card image file. Install the Android SDK. 4 KitKat? You can now record the screen of your device, but the process may not be as easy as you'd hope. How to Use Android ADB Command Line Tool June 16, 2010 by Lorensius Londa 129 Comments Android Debug Bridge (adb) is a tool that lets you manage the state of an emulator instance or Android phone. In the main menu, choose Tools | Create Command-line Launcher. Install/Uninstall App In Emulator (AVD) Of Android From Command Prompt Software testing tutorials and automation. txt, with size as. Same great program, just with a new name. This post will give a step by step guidance on how to connect Nox with Android Studio as an example. The "android avd" command has been deprecated and replaced with a standalone avdmanager command. img to receive a 256MB image named sd256m. To develop Flutter apps for iOS, you need a Mac with Xcode. Read more to find out download links for Android SDK tools / Command line tools. The copies become independent of the originals (i.